History of the Queen of the Kingdom
of Matamba & Angola called Queen
Donna Anna di Sousa alias Queen Ginga
For am I my Brother's Keeper ? Gen. c.
Picture: Smiths working forge, showing first king of Matamba
 Lib II Cap I?
Of the ancestry of the ancient Kings of the
Dear readers, it is commonly said by the Ancients & moderns that it was always a just action to give praise, when it does not mean changing the names of virtues & vices but giving to each one what is justly due, & also that he who speaks of Kings must always say & relate the best of the Virtues, & hide the vices as much as he can; but I do not wish to change the name of the virtues nor that of the vices, but wish to give what is justly due to each, & show what it is, and in speaking of the Kings of Dongo I wish not only to speak of their virtues, but also to speak of their vices, & to follow what the great Plutarch wrote of the Wise women in Greece & the chaste ones in Rome in order to make their virtues known to the world & show that masculine valour Reigns also in a womanly breast; for this reason I briefly describe to you the descent of the Ancestors of Queen Ginga here in Occidental or luner Ethiopia, her life, her customs, the barbarities and cruelties she committed in the past, so that when her vice is noted, the virtue should also be manifest which she shows at the present time, in contrast to the past. I say she was Wise as if she had been one of the Greeks, Chaste as a Roman converted to God. Common fame & general report, not from written history because there is none, but from what is commonly said & information received from the Ancient black People of the
In the regions of Occidental or Interior Ethiopia, a part of Southern Africa between the Kingdom of Matamba, that of the Congo, & that of Binguella  is placed the Kingdom of Dongo, with the other name of Angola; before it was a Kingdom & had a King blessed God sent one of his customary punishments coming from his Divine Clemency until man realised the sins he had committed & showed true repentance and amendment for them; & this was a great famine which he sent to the inhabitants of those parts of the country, who were only accustomed to sowing in small quantities, and similarly to harvesting within a short time; they felt much apathy thinking they would have to die of hunger, but our loving God is not so rigorous in punishment that even in the middle of it he does not make the sweetness of his pity & mercy felt, as when he wished to chastise Flanders and sent a great Famine to it, & when the people were oppressed by its rigour and longing for the other life he made them feel the sweetness of his pity & mercy, for just as he provided for the Egyptians the Patriarch Joseph, minister of King Pharaoh, so that they could call on him & he could provide for their necessities, he did the same in the Land of the aged Jacob, for which he had prepared the remedy in advance of the punishment by means of his own son sold by his brothers, who provided for everyone abundantly; so did he do for the people of Flanders by means of Carlo Burghi who saved it in a time so calamitous that the destruction of humanity was threatened, & they deserved great honour & praise. Nor did he show less pity & mercy to the people of the above‑named Regions; although they were barbarians & Heathens he had prepared the remedy for them before the punishment. There had come from the Kingdom of Congo a black man named Angola Mussuri who was related to the King of Congo, & practised the Art of a blacksmith, and who with the skill & industry of his hands & the sweat of his brow had accumulated many goods, not only in the country called Dongo where he lived, but also elsewhere, his Art being much esteemed among the black Ethiopians, & most of all among the natives of Dongo, because of the novelty of the arrows, Spears, Surresine, & other Arms which he made, & because he was the first to  make these Arms they madly affirmed that he spoke with the God called Zampungu or Zambi, & now they say Zambiampungu which means the same as God, and that he had taught him the art. He had therefore accumulated much of the land's currency, which is pieces of cloth woven from grass called libonghi, pater nosters of coloured clay, amissange, grain, vegetables, & other things people gave him in return for his work, although he served many of them free for love of God, not only because he saw they were poor, but also because he was naturally inclined to mercy, & this was the oil of mercy which divine Clemency usually shows in the middle of punishment, because those people, who, like those of Flanders, were full of ill‑will, and thought more of the next life than the present one, had recourse to him and he relieved the distresses of the starving people in abundance, practising the work of physical mercy although he was a heathen, and so they passed in prosperity through the time that threatened the ruin of humanity. Now if the above-named were worthy of praise & honour, is our Angola Mussuri then worthy of less praise & honour ? Rather, he should be esteemed worthy of more than they, because they used Gold & Silver, & he used the earnings of the work of his hands & the sweat of his brow to relieve the distresses of the starving. They considered, therefore, how graciously they had been benefited, set free from the danger which overhung them, & how well he had observed the forms which should be respected when doing good, that is, doing it in the way in which each recipient would wish to have it done, because it must be done with good will in the time of need, & without delay; he did good with good will & promptitude in remembrance of the urgent need. They also considered that there is nothing more displeasing to God & men, according to the sayings of the Saints, and as confessed by every Traveller, than ingratitude. These Travellers who had been so graciously benefited not wishing to fail either God or their benefactor, but rather wishing to show themselves grateful, gathered together & elected him for their King & Lord, swearing fidelity to him, & promising him obedience.
The peoples of
The Medes were accustomed to elect the man who was thought the strongest for their King.
 The Cathei exalted to the Kingly dignity those who were thought handsomer than the others, the Automelian peoples followed the same practice, & in Ancient Tiems our own Ethiopians also followed that custom.
Those of Libia exalted the fastest in walking.
Those of Bernia elected for their King the man who even in sleep showed himself to them with open hands, said Gastone Moncada. But our Ethiopians did not follow the laws of the Persians, nor the custom of the Medes, nor did they observe the usage of the Cathei, not regarding knowledge like the first of them nor handsomeness like the second, & thinking nothing of speed, like the third, or handsomeness & shapeliness like the fourth & fifth. They only valued their new Gastone who in the time of need had shown himself to them with open hands, and this I say they esteemed worthy of command & the Crown, & so our Angola Mussuri was exalted from the anvil & hammer to the Sceptre & crown of the Kingdom of Dongo, or Angola, & from him are descended the Kings of the above Kingdom, & their descendants from whom comes Queen Ginga.
Seeing himself exalted to the Royal Crown, therefore, our Angola Mussuri was able, mostly by goodwill & love, to captivate all the people & make them favourable to him; he formed a Court and gave the town the name of Cabazzo meaning Court, & from this it came about that they called the place where the King or Lord who commands others lives Cabazzo, & until the present day this is practised among the inhabitants of this inner Ethiopia; & this I say so that the reader should know the Meaning of this word, and must also point out that the word Angola, or ngola as it is commonly said, is the surname which has remained as a Royal inheritance among all the Kings of Dongo, or Angola, called by the surname of this their first King, especially after it was conquered by the Portuguese, so that this word Angola means the King of Angola, and placing before it the syllable n, that is, ngola, means King, with the personal name natural to him added, as for example ngola Mussurri means blacksmith or locksmith King; so that wherever this word was found it means King, Kingdom, son of a King, as will be observed in the course of this narrative.
 This man, therefore, settled down and married according to the custom of the heathens, that is he took a woman & constituted her principal Lady of the other concubines, with the name of Inganna Innena meaning great Lady, & mistress of the House; & this custom they still follow at the present time, & the sons of such a lady, & not the others, are the true & legitimate heirs among the Ethiopians. He had three daughters by her, the first of whom was called Zundo Riangola, the second was called Tumba Riangola, and I have not been able to discover the name of the third; being a peaceful ruler he behaved like a loving father towards all his subjects & children; he had a slave he had earned by the blacksmith's art whom he loved not as a slave but as a son, and, thinking how with his help he had earned the means by which he had acquired the Royal Crown, he wished to gratify him by raising him to the office of Tandala. This office is much esteemed among them & means he is Viceroy, & governs if the King is absent or impeded from governing, & is normally in the Rearguard which is called Iquoqua, the principal way to have access to the Court. And as the King was already advanced in years & thinking of his death he left the care of the kingdom to the Tandala, & waited quietly, bearing the weight of his days, having no other consolation than that of his daughter Zundo Riangola whom he loved very much and with whom he talked, & consoled himself saying that no‑one other than her could be heir to the Royal Crown. The way the old King spoke was not hidden from the Tandala, & thinking his work was in vain, & that the daughter must inherit, he took care to remain friendly with her until he should have an opportunity to free himself from the unpleasant sight of the Dying King & assure himself of the truth of the distrust he had of the daughter & make himself King & Lord. He planned in his heart various means of accomplishing his evil intent; he did not like Cain lead him out to a field & kill him there but waited for a day assigned for the courtiers
to go to their fields and Sow them according to the custom of the Kingdom, & remained in the care of the King, & the City, with a few servants; when he considered the day was convenient for his wicked purpose, as the daughter Zundo Riangola was absent, he put his evil plan into execution without delay, like a true observer of the maxim of Suctonius? he pretended that the enemy was waging war, & hurried to set the King free, & carrying him across his shoulders lifted him up not into the shelter of a great Rock, nor of an unassailable fortress; but he carried him to a deep ditch, & there hid him forever, burying him alive. (You may perhaps ask, if this was a
2? If, while old Angola Mussuri, his King & Lord, was still alive, he always took care to keep his daughter Zundo Riangola as a friend, he took even more care after having killed her Father, alleging as excuses his old age, his inability to govern, & also the fact that she herself was a woman, and that in order to preserve the reputation of the Royal Crown it was necessary for him to govern. The unhappy Zundo took everything in good part, admitting his excuses, & lending herself against her will to whatever he said, & inwardly told herself that he was old & would shortly follow the path of the late King, & she would be freed from all fear & would he Queen, and that it was better to be deceitful than to risk her own life. She took care to keep on the side of the wicked King, until, taken with a fatal weakness he weighed anchor from this tempestuous ocean of a world, & went to cross Charon's dreadful passage, & from there was carried to the infernal habitations which were the eternal home of his murdered Lord, with whom he remained forever associated in those horrendous torments of the damned. His death was mourned according to the barbarous customs of Ethiopia, & they gave burial to his Body, whose Soul, already buried, remained in hell, & this was the end of the second King of Dongo, or Angola.
3? The daughter Zundo Riangola rejoiced greatly at the death of the homicide, and she was placed on her dead Father's throne as his true heiress; let everyone conceive her joy, & the consolation of the title of Queen, and above all the Jubeo, et volo so long desired, & now achieved by the world. It would be good if the Rose could be found without a thorn, & summer without winter; but because this is a vain hope, and the one can never fail to follow the other, she sat enthroned enjoying the Royal Roses, but soon she found herself discovering the hidden thorn, true companion of the Rose, & it was a great sadness caused by the knowledge of having no children who after her death would inherit the Royal Crown, & she burned with anger & indignation seeing her sister with the two children she had had by her concubine called Chiluangi quiasamba. She clad herself with false Zeal, & sent word to her Sister & brother‑in‑law to say that it was not fitting that as she was childless & had nephews, they should remain far from the Court, and that therefore it was fitting  that they should be sent to stay with her, & be brought up in the practices of the Court, so that they should later succeed her in the government; this request from his Sister‑in‑law the Queen aroused much suspicion in her Brother‑in‑law, whose Zeal & the love he showed her were false; he determined to assure himself of the truth & not send anyone; his determination greatly distressed his wife & so as not to pain her further he confined himself to sending one child. He therefore made all the preparations that were necessary, & sent him with an honourable company to the Court of the Sister Queen; they wished every happiness to his Father & Mother, & applauded the beginning of the son's great position, the mother saying "there is one on the right, later the other will go on the left, & who can take the Kingdom from him ? One will Reign after the other, & I shall be called the mother of two Kings", but O vain hopes of this world, & where do they end ? The opposite was in store for her, the hook was covered with bait and the poison with sugar, & the Queen‑Aunt with a deceitful trick was waiting for him; when her nephew came into the presence of the Queen she gave him the required signs of humility, adoration & reverence customary among the blacks of Ethiopia, & also those of observance & obedience to her nephew, and of love & joy as he was of her blood, & when he was looking at her lovingly as at a true likeness of her sister, like Constantine the third, she showed the evil of her Heart, & disclosed what had been hidden, & showed how cruel iron was hidden under the bait, because she suddenly cast off her deceitful mild, loving & benignant appearance, & returned to her ordinary barbarous & cruel self, changing her pretended Zeal & love to hate & anger, & manifested the evil of her Heart by ordering that he should be cruelly put to death; I say that he was to die, he who should have sat on her right, & also those people who had accompanied him; the cruel mandate was executed, both in the case of the nephew and that of his servants, & what sort of welcome & caress is that ? & what order is this to give to your nephew ? That is how things go in this black
 When the King, I mean the Queen Zundo Riangola was dead, her sister Mtumba ngola stayed, greatly consoled by having avenged her son's death, & when she was elected as Queen she did not wish to accept Royal rank, but remitted it to her husband who did not wish to accept it, on the grounds that he had no Royal blood that of a Concubine (a form of marriage which the heathen can easily repudiate). They finally agreed that their son called Ngola Chiluangi should govern, & so crowned him King of the Kingdom, both assisting him as Parents & Tutors. Seeing himself on the Royal throne he waged war on some people, & subjugated them with his valour, & made them his vassals; for this reason many voluntarily swore him obedience as loyal vassals so as not to undergo the rigour of Arms. He was a great warrior, & very fortunate in his Warlike undertakings, & if the Assyrians & Chaldeans, & above all the Romans aggrandised themselves by force of Arms, this King did no less, for he subjected various Provinces to his empire, & became very powerful & much feared. He kept a great number of concubines according to the Ethiopian custom, by whom he had several children, from whom are derived the various Houses that exist in the Kingdom. By a Concubine called Haria ngola he had a son by the name of Maria Chiluanji from whom is derived the line of the King Angola arij. From another called Cannina derive the ngola Cannina, from another named Muenga a Chiluangi derives that called Muengha, & so with others that are passed over for the sake of brevity, & among these he had a son called Dambi ngola whom he loved very much because he saw him inclined to barbarity & cruelty, a vice common among the inhabitants of this black Occidental Ethiopia. Finally, weighed down by many years & with many sons, he left this present life by paying the tribute of a Traveller to death, his death was felt by everyone both near and far, & he was given an honourable burial according to the custom of his Ancestors with the necessary sacrifice; this was the end of the fourth King of Dongo ngola quiluangi quiasamba by name. Now let us pass to the fifth, Dambi
5? The son called Dambi Angola succeeded to the throne of the dead King; he soon showed his true character without changing or hiding it  because he ordered all his brothers & sisters, who were many, to be killed, & only two escaped, one into the Matamba Kingdom, & the other into the Libolo Province. He was very cruel & also very vicious; there was no vice that did not have its dwelling in him , no barbarous act which he did not commit, no cruelty he did not practise, and he had no equal in lechery because great was the number of his Concubines, & great also was the number of his children, & among them one called ngola Chiluangi Chiandambi. Finally he followed the path of his Ancestors, & paid tribute to death, & as he had been so barbarous & wicked his death was greatly felt by his neighbours & by strangers, & he had an honourable burial, & those of his own Blood & his Vassals made him great offerings.
6? Ngola Chiluangi Chiandambi succeeded to the throne, & was the Sixth King of Dongo. It seemed to this new King that the actions of his predecessors, and fear and obedience inspired by them, had not been singular; he went into the field with a great army, & began to conquer the Provinces adjoining the rivers Dande, Zenza, & Lucala, until he arrived near Loanda where in memory of the enterprise he planted a Tree called Insanda which holds its leaves like the Laurel, & until today the name of Isandera has been preserved, & it is the fortress of the Portuguese Lords on the bank of the Coanza river. After these & other glorious Victories he returned to his Court where he was met with great joy by his Vassals, with music, shouts & dancing, & clapping of hands as is the Ethiopian custom; the news of his return was quickly spread, & everyone ran to congratulate each other on the Victories won, & as flattering men & women are not lacking, it came about that he was so flattered that they called him God, & he came to be the wonder of Ethiopia, & was recognised not only by neighbours, but also by those from far away who sent him presents, &  he became so proud that he came to claim what they had given from courtesy as a right, & had himself worshipped as a God, & the result was the mad idea still heard today, that he held the watering of the earth in his hand, which is still preserved by his successors who do not wish it to be regarded as madness, & it is followed by foolish vassals, as I have related elsewhere more diffusely so as not to hold up the reader here. He finally reached the end of his days without leaving male children to inherit the Kingdom, although he had a large number of Concubines according to the custom of the Kings of Ethiopia, but as Blessed God so disposed it through his inscrutable judgements which are hidden from us, he was given an honourable burial in the tomb of his Fathers with sacrifices appropriate to his greatness; this was the end of this sixth King of Dongo.
7? As a new King had to be elected, & there were no male heirs of the deceased one, they elected as King a man called Nginga Angola quilombo quiacasenda, son of Angola chiluangi quiandambi, great‑nephew of Angola chiluangi quiasamba, first King after Queen Zundo Riangola; this man, when he was King, was very barbarous & cruel, & showed his haughtiness towards some Lords, his Vassals, who rebelled, whom he forced to obey him once more, & among these were those of the Province of Oarij; he also conquered some Provinces, committed many acts of barbarity & cruelty, & would have committed more if the thread of his days had not been cut by death, to which as a Traveller he paid the necessary tribute, leaving an only son called Bandi Angola quiluangi to inherit the Kingdom; this is all that concerns the above seventh King of Dongo, now we pass to the eighth.
8? Bandi Angola quiluangi became the eighth king, to whom some people give the first name of Ginga before Bandi as it was that of his Predecessor as was said above.
He began to rule tyrannically, it so happened that he excited the Souls of many of his Vassals and friends against him. In the time of this King occurred many Wars in these Kingdoms, and the Giaga people passed through all of them, damaging the
The Captain of these soldiers contracted a close friendship with one of the King's daughters, & shared pastimes & amusements with her, and they came to form one single body owing to the love each bore the other. As the King was so prosperous, & thinking continually about the victory he had obtained over his enemies with such a limited number of the Portuguese, he began to fear that they would kill him and seize his Kingdom, & make themselves Lords of all. He discussed this suspicion with counsellors who, being of a very suspicious nature, were ready to believe what the King said, & lend themselves to his will. When the King, therefore, saw his Vassals' entire resignation to his will he determined to order all the Portuguese to be killed, not only the soldiers but also the merchants who were in his Kingdom to trade. When the daughter had understood her Father's wicked resolve & that he turned the thanks which were due to him into gratitude, she determined to save her Lover's life; so, on the day assigned for committing that deed of execrable evil, so that he should not be caught in the trap, she secretly sent people who would take him away from the King's fury. She was faithfully obeyed, so that while the soldiers & merchants were being killed he was placed in safety, & returned to the Congo, & when later he went to Portugal he told the King of the King of Dongo's betrayal, & the king sent him to avenge the ingratitude, which was how the conquest of the Kingdom  of Dongo later came about, (as I have written elsewhere), and blessed God showed that the killing of the Portuguese had not pleased him, for in the future the king of Dongo had no victories over his enemies, nor profits from war, but loss & damage.
He had a principal Concubine as his wife, daughter of hango a quiquiaito, whom he loved so much that he seemed bewitched by her Love; for this reason her brothers acquired the confidence to commit many crimes, owing to which the nobility were greatly distressed, because they could not remedy them as they wished. Because of all this they invented a plot, to order the Colambolo i.e.,? the Sergeant general, to make war on a powerful Lord called Cavullo Cacabasa who was to be subjected to obedience, as it suited the reputation of the King & Kingdom, but he pretended to be vanquished by the enemy, & they forced the King to go in person to avenge the insult; & when he arrived to cross the Lucala river he stopped, & his men, suspecting that they were discovered, determined to kill him, & did so without delay, & returning to the Court announced that the King was ill, & after a few days that he was dead, leaving a son by his principal Concubine, who because of having committed adultery was in prison. He left four children by a Concubine named Quenguella Cancombe who came from Dumbo aebo, or as others call it, a Pe; the first of them was ngolambande who succeeded his Father in the government, the second was Ginga Bande Angola, christened Donna anna de Sousa. The Third was Donna Barbara called Cambo. The fourth was donna gratia called fungi. He was buried in the tomb of His Fathers according to the custom of his ancestors with the appropriate sacrifices; such was the end of the ungrateful Ginga Bande
9? When Ngolambande saw his Father was dead, & his principal wife in prison owing to the adultery she had committed, although there was an heir to the throne he had himself proclaimed King, & seeing himself raised to the Royal Sceptre & Crown although it was not fitting to him as the son of a slave (but right yields to might), he did not fail to be recognised as a King, and at once ordered the death not only of his brother , the true heir to the Kingdom, but also that of his mother, having no regard to the fact that she had been his Father's concubine; nor did his show of barbarity end here, for he also ordered all her brothers to be killed, & his sisters, so that nobody should remain to oppose his reign, or avenge their deaths; but how different human judgements are from divine ones!
I say that it was not fitting for him to reign, firstly because he was the son of a Slave woman, not a free one, & she was not the principal wife; secondly because he had not been elected by those deputed to the election, who are the Tandala, that is to say Viceroy; secondly the manigico, who is the Lord of the slaves' market (?)?, thirdly the Manimacao Lord of the people of the Court, fourthly the Manilumbo Lord of the walls, who is a counsellor, fifthly the Manimiscette Lord of the Case of Relics who ? the King, & his Cassalli vassals?? worship; these had failed to appear. So he was not a legitimate King, & he was acclaimed by the people, only from fear of his barbarous acts rather than because of goodwill on the part of his Vassals, & after some time he also ordered the death of the Tandala, & all his Family without making concessions to their sex or age; nor did he stop there, but realising that his sister Gingabande had given birth to a son he sent orders for him to be killed, so as to be free from any human fear during his reign; he broke the peace with the Portuguese, & many wars followed. But finally, he was thrown out of the Kingdom by force of Arms, & fled to the Islands of the Coanza river called Chindonga, whence, as it was ravaged by the same people, he fled to Oacco, & when the Portuguese had left he returned to the above-named Islands where he lived miserably.
This barbarian accompanied his reign with a life of dissipation and lechery; he had no equal in the number of his concubines or the wildness of his outpourings, for they say that he made use of his own sisters. he had many children, but only one by his principal wife, whom he entrusted to his great Friend Giaga Casa for the practice of arms, & also to protect him from the anger & fury of his sister Ginga Bande, because he had killed her own son; he was buried in the Island called Dangij which means a root, from which the others derive, & his Court was called Cabazza. This was the end of ngolambande, ninth King of Dongo.
 10 When King Ngolambande has been buried, Princess Ginga Bande Angola declared herself Queen of the Kingdom with the goodwill of the Court, & made the Vassals obey her and swear to be faithful to her, although the son was the true heir to the Kingdom, to whom the right to govern belonged; but the wise Queen sent word to Giaga Case in whose army her nephew was, to say that he was to come to her so that she could yield her place to him, for her being called Queen was not so that she could govern, but to quieten? the tumults which usually arise when Kings die. The Queen's cunning was not hidden from the Giaga, who for that reason did not wish to send him, but the Queen showed such cleverness and wiles (as will be seen in telling the story of her life) that she managed to obtain her nephew's presence, & having courteously received him she had him thrown into the Coanza river, & as a result the war with the Portuguese began again until she too was chased from the Kingdom by force of Arms, & remaining obstinate in her evil will she made herself Giaga, practising the behaviour & customs of a Giaga, and the laws, & made herself felt in Western Ethiopia as the most barbarous & cruel woman that there had ever been in the world, & this not for a few days, but for the space of forty years, each one worse than the last, as will be seen from the story of her life. I will only add that she was a sea of lust, & had more Concubines than the three most famous prostitutes in the world had lovers; she surpassed the Tyrants in barbarity, the lions & tigers in cruelty, the harpies in wrath, & the poisonous snakes in the ferocity she showed in her lair, shedding more blood in peace than others in war. When the Portuguese saw that this cruel harpy thought of nothing but the destruction of human beings they swore that she was their principal enemy & to her shame created a new King of the Kingdom, called
11 When Queen Ginga Bande Angola was dead, the Princess Donna Barbara named abondo Cambo was elected; she was imprisoned by the Portuguese while King ngolabande, her brother, was on the throne, and remained a captive for five years with a sister called Donna gracia, & Fungi in that country. They were finally sent to the King their brother who then sent them to be baptised with the above-mentioned names & while the Queen was reigning they were captured again, & remained captive for fourteen years, after which she was rescued by the Queen her sister in the year 1655; 130 slaves were paid for her release to the Lord Governor Luis Martino di Sosa Ciccoro, & she was sent to her sister accompanied by a Capuchin Father named Father Antonio Romano, a native of Gaetta; this was in the year 1661. She had an illness which made her permanently blind, but in spite of this was elected Queen because she was the sister of the late Queen, & there was no direct heir, and now what should I say? It is enough to say that anyone can imagine what is may be like to govern while Blind; she was baptised while still young (as will be told in the proper place) & always showed herself a Christian ardently willing to exhort her Vassals to Christianity & the observance of the divine precepts. As soon as she was elected Queen she ordered that, under pain of strict penalties, nobody should dare to made sacrifices, rational or irrational, to the dead Queen, her sister, according to the custom of her Ancestors; there should only be masses, gifts of gold & alms according to the Christian custom. [But she too paid the Traveller's tribute to death in the year 1668 on 24 March, & she was succeeded by her husband as twelfth King, a barbarous & Cruel one (as will be seen in its Place).]
(replaced earlier text: may it please God for her to continue to the end without showing any instability as these Ethiopians, both Western and Eastern, generally do, but that she will always remain steadfast &)
 marginal note: & who have remained
This, dear readers, is the ancestry of the Kings of Dongo, or Angola, from whom Queen Ginga descends, so that the most honourable office among these people is that of Blacksmith or coppersmith, as they were descended from a man with that office. It is not to be wondered at that the above‑mentioned lowly born Kings should have acquired Sceptres & Crowns, because honour is validated by the use of weapons, & a good reputation is the best patrimony in the army, because the honour of a soldier does not consist in the family name of his House, nor in the inheritance of goods from his ancestors, for if this were so the Kings of Angola would not have existed. For although this man was related to the King of Congo he was extremely poor, & lived in the sweat of his brow; as a King of Ethiopia had two or three hundred Concubines anyone can judge how their sons & Relations lived. I say that sometimes they go clad in the clothing in which they came from their mothers bellies eating like dogs & sleeping on the ground like animals, & when they have a mat to sleep on it is? a great treat; to describe them is a waste of time & paper because those unaccustomed to the world would not believe it. Nobility for a soldier consists in the opinion his Friends & Enemies have of his courage & worthiness; this is how the above‑named Kings began. The soldier is the son of his works, & may be called honoured without inheritance, because being noble by birth or achieving merit through Arms is an honour to one's Ancestors & an obligation to one's descendants; but they, who at first were low & humble, and attained titles, Crowns & Sceptres through their arms & valour, give birth to their own family, House & Kingdoms, which then remain for their descendants & successors, as can be seen from the Kings of Angola or Dongo who at first were poor, and from being blacksmiths acquired the Crown. If they did not honour their Ancestors by being noble, at least they bestowed an obligation on their descendants, & gave birth to the
This is the true information I have been able to acquire as to the beginning & ancestry of the Kings of Angola from whom comes Queen Ginga, so that the reader may read & admire the means which God uses to save redeemed souls with his most precious blood.
Dear reader, I must advise you of what Catullus says of Cicero, that to write history it is not necessary to be an orator, but it is enough not to be a liar. Aristotle says that that? those who invent things which are not, or hide those that are worthy of blame; in this narrative I shall not be condemned for lying, or hiding what has happened, but only for the absence of the Talent that I lack. I have simply described the descent of the Kings of Dongo, without relating how much time elapsed between one reign and the next because it cannot be known, as there were no writers among these Ethiopians, and they do not commit their affairs to memory, so I merely say "in the time of such a King"; but what I have written of the Giaghi, & what remains to me to write of Queen Ginga, is what I have seen & heard, as I have already spent my twelfth year living in these remote parts of Western Ethiopia in Southern Africa, living there in accordance with the laws. You must also believe that I have experience of the Country & its inhabitants, & if you hear something unheard-of & hard to believe, suspend  your judgement, because this can be called a world Upside-down without fear of being censured by anyone knowing what diversity, monstrosity & vicissitude? there is in this world.
. See Book 1, p. 44 for Cavazzi's statements on his informants for his work on the Jagas. Page 19 below gives other details. Cavazzi clearly used a number of informants from both Matamba (Njinga's court) and Mpungu a Ndongo ("other kingdoms") to write this account, which sources of European provenance and Cavazzi's sense of a logical story.
. Kingdom of Benguela, in Cavazzi's day was the Portuguese dominated strip of Atlantic coast near the modern towns of Lobito and Benguela in central Angola. It derived its name, however, from Old Benguela, further north up the coast, which in turn derived its name from a kingdom on the upper reaches of the Longa river, first reported by Europeans (in that location and as a source of copper) in 1546, Regimento for Diogo de Soveral, in Brasio, Monumenta, 2: Antonio Mendes mentioned it as a powerful enemy of Ndongo in 1563, Ibid, 2: For more details on its location, see Beatrix Heintze, "Wer war der 'Konig von Banguela?'" In Memoriam Jorge Dias (2 Vols., Lisbon, 1974) 1:
. The reference is impossible to locate precisely, but it clearly refers to a widespread feeling among Catholics that disaster to Calvinist Flanders was the result of Divine retribution, while Carlos Burgos is apparently a Spanish official there who presumably relieved this famine.
. In Istorica Descrizione, Book 2, no. 126 Cavazzi presents this story in a different way, which shows that in revising he borrowed heavily from the story of Ndongo's origin found in Pigafetta, see Relasione (ed. Cardona), p. 19, where the founder was a governor or appointee of the King of Kongo who was able to dominate the area because it was divided into many small political units. There is not mention of the famine, but simply a statement that Ngola Musuri became wealthy from his art and was thus elected king. A story similar to the one in the Araldi MS is found in da Gaeta, Maravigliosa Conversione, p. 135, but with no connection to Kongo.
. Nzambi Mpungo means in Kikongo, "highest nzambi" where nzambi (related to the Kimbundu nzambi, see Book 1, pp. 83-5 and notes 211-12) is a general term for ancestor spirits. See also MacGaffey, "Cosmology" pp. 7-9. This term was widely used in both Kikongo and Kimbundu catechismal literature to mean "God" in the Christian sense: its earliest recorded use in Kongo is 1548, letter of Cristovao Riberio, August 1548, Brasio Monumenta, 2: 187; and in Angola it was probably in use since the first arrival of Jesuit missionaries (who had Kongo experience) in the 1560's or at the latest 1575, see Francisco Rodrigues, "Historia da Residencia dos Padres Jesuitas no Reino de Angola", 1594 in Ibid, 4: 560.
. Istorica Descrizione, Book 2, no. 126 says that he learned the skill from an "idol", that is, a territorial spirit (see Book 1, pp. 90-93 and note 222). Nzamba a Mpungu would have the attributes of a very ancient ancestor spirit of a territorial spirit, as some modern philosophers believe that the two chains of spirits merge at the top, see MacGaffey, "Cosmology", pp. 7-9 and thus the discordance might be explained. The role of blacksmith in central Africa likewise had cosmological significance.
. Libongo (Lubongo) is the cloth money made in northern and eastern Kongo and widely used by the Portuguese in seventeenth century Angola as money, of an earlier description of its nature and sources in Alvitre de Pedro Sardinha (ca. 1611), Brasio, Monumenta 6: 52-6. Its use here may be an anachronism as prior to the Portuguese conquest monies of Kongo provenance such as nzimbu shells did not circulate in Ndongo; Pigafetta, Relazione (ed. Cardona), p. 24 is quite specific on this point. Pigafetta does speak of two other types of money mentioned in this passage, 'rosary beads' (pater nostras) and amissange = misanga. He speaks of "pater nostras of a glass made in Venice...called Anzolos" which when "threaded like a rosary" are called "Mizanga". These Venetian substitutes were probably considered as interchangeable with locally made, and named, bead moneys made from ostrich shells in southern Angola, see Edouard Dartevelle, Les n'zimbu monnaie du Royaume de Congo (Brussels: Societe Royale Belge d'Anthropologie et de Prehistoire, 1953), pp. 41-5.
.This somewhat garbled list of Classical and medieval precedents for electing kings is difficult to trace, and at least some of it may have come from Cavizzi's imagination. In any case, he probably did not have the necessary library of Classical texts close at hand in Matamba.
. Cabazzo = kabasa, court or capital city. The earliest use of the term comes from letters of Francisco de Gouveia, 1563 and 1 November 1564, Brasio, Monumenta 2: 520 and 528. This kabasa had a circuit as large of that of Evora in Portugal and contained some 5-6,000 houses.
. This is not a personal name, but solely an honorific title. Inene can also mean "first" or "original". Traditions from the 1570's collected by Lopes (Pigafetta's informant) and Jesuits call the first king "Angola Inene" meaning simply first or original king, see note 33 below.
. Istorica Descrizione, Book 2, no. 127 states that Cavazzi did not remember the name of the third daughter, while here, significantly he was "unable to find it out" implying an attempt that failed rather than simply a lapse of memory. Da Gaeta, Maravigliosa Conversione, p.136. 14, gives different names for the children, and has different sexes: Zunduria Angola is a son, while a daughter is named Hohoria Angola.
. Istorica Descrizione, Book 2, no. 127 had a different version, in which the slave raises a false alarm which causes the courtesans, who are in the fields to flee. This allows him to run to the king;s residence, and kills the aged king (who begs for mercy) with a knife. The differences are more than simple detail, for the later version allows for the spilling of royal blood, while the one we meet here does not. On the difference between starvation or suffocation and violence as a cause of death, see Miller, Kings and Kinsmen, pp. 171-4.
. An apparent reference to the common central African fortification technique of constructing walls of living trees around their towns which in the course of the years form an extremely thick forest around its perimeter. Such a fortification surrounded the royal capital in 1563, according to Antonio Mendes, Brasio, Monumenta 2: 500-501.
. Istorica Descrizione, Book 2, no. 127 depicts Zundo Riangola's resistance to the usurpation as being vigorous and verbal, in which she openly questions his right to rule, which is in line with the differences noted in note 18 above, to the lower legitimacy placed on those who violently kill (as opposed to suffocating) the old king. Cavazzi had perhaps heard two versions of the story, one with violent death and resistance by Zundo which he favored in Istorica Descrizione, one with death by suffocation and resigned acceptance favored in the Araldi version. It is significant that in da Gaeta's account of these events, collected solely at Matamba in 1656-58, the old king simply dies and is peacefully succeeded by his son Zunduria Angola; Maravigliosa Conversione, p.136.
. Chiluangu quisamba = Kilwanji kia Samba. Da Gaeta, Maravigliosa Conversione, pp. 138 calls him husband of Angola Bumbambula's daughter Hohoria Angola (sister of the second king Zunduria Angola) and a "knight of Bembe" (perhaps the region in the Central Highlands of central Angola, home of the Ovimbundu, called Bembe by Cavazzi, Istorica Descrizione Book 1, no. ).
. Istorica Descrizione, Book 2, no. 127 differs. There, she maintains that she is incapable of governing, while he says he is satisfied as her mulumi or favorite, and to serve her as a slave, while the parenthetical phrase on the ease of dissolution of marriages by heathens is presented more as a speculation. Da Gaeta, Maravigliosa Conversione, pp. 141-2 is different as well: Chiluangi Chiasamba is acclaimed king by popular support, with Hohoria Angola as his queen, he takes the title "Angola" and then, upon his death, passes it to his son Angola Chiluangi.
. This feature makes this next section a sort of "charter" for various lineages of royal blood found in the area in the seventeenth century, while his son by his main wife founds the royal line. On such genealogies, see Miller, Kings and Kinsmen, pp. 82-3.
. Haria Angola = Hari a Ngola. In Istorica Descrizione, Book 2, no. 129 he is called Nadi Angola, which might be a misprint for Hari Angola (a similar misprint is found in Book 2, no. 59 where the "idol" Naviez is written Haviez), and his descendent Joao II was ruling in Cavazzi's day. This line challenged Queen Njinga's right to the throne, supported by the Portuguese, and founded a rump kingdom of Ndongo with their capital at Mpungu a Ndongo in Hari province, Heintze, "Ende", pp, 222-4, 227-8, 238-9, 243, 246. Da Gaeta calls this line Haria Chiluangi (Hair a Kilwanji), Maravigliosa Conversione, p.144.
. Cannina = Kanini. Istorica Descrizione, Book 2, no. 129 adds that his seat was Ambaca, the Portuguese fortress, where he was made to serve the church and they were thus called "sobas of the church". Their kabasa was two miles from the fort. Da Gaeta, Maravigliosa Conversione, p. 144 calls him Caninica Chiluangi (Kanini Ka Kilwanji) and mentions their connection with the fort, but not the other details. Thanks to Njinga's capture of their leader in 1644 and her promotion of him to her mwene lumbu, the Kanini were able to become rulers of Matamba after Njinga's death and the civil war that followed, Birmingham, Trade and Conflict, pp.
. Muengha a Chiluangi = Mwenga a Kilwanji. In Istorica Descrizione Book 2, no. 129 Cavazzi added that their territory in his day was two day's journey from Embaca, while da Gaeta, Maravigliosa Conversione, p. 144 says that their line was ruling in a place called "Lembo" and he adds a fourth son, by a fourth concubine, named Mubangaa Chiluangi (Mubanga a Kilwanji) whose line ruled "not far from Embaca".
. Dambi Angola = Ndambi a Ngola. Sixteenth century sources give the name of the ruler who was reigning when Paulo Dias de Novais arrived in 1560 and Dambi Angola, son of "Angola Inene" who they, and the traditions of the 1580's named as the first ruler of Ndongo. They specify that this Dambi Angola was the son of Angola Inene, and that Angola Inene had sent ambassadors to Portugal in 1556 or 1557. In addition to contemporary documents, cited in Birmingham, Trade and Conflict, pp. 33-41, the traditions collected in the 1580's can be found in Pigafetta, Relazione, (ed. Cardona) p. 19; Francisco Rodrigues, "Historia", Brasio, Monumenta, 4: 551-2; various fragments of Baltasar Barreira in Brasio, Monumenta, 3: passim and Pierre du Jarric, Histoire des choses plus memorables advenues tant ez Indes Orientales, que autres pais de la descouvert des Portugais (3 Volumes, Bordeaux, 1609-12) 2: 76-84. With the exception of Pigafetta, all these sources are of Jesuit origin and stem from a probable single source, most likely a document originally written by Baltasar Barreira about 1582 and only known from fragments, quotations and excerpts.
. Angola Chiluangi Chiandambi = Ngola Kilwanji kia Ndambi. According to du Jarric, Histoire 2: 83 a king named Quiloange Angola had succeeded Dambi Angola between the first contact with Angola by Paulo Dias de Novias and his return (probably in 1575), and that this new ruler, much more friendly to Portugal was, was a "nepheu ou petit-fils" (nephew or grandson, probably from the ambiguity that a French speaker would face in translating the Portuguese word "neto" which can mean either grandson or nephew, in his Portuguese language sources) of his predecessor. baltasar Barreira, in one on his fragments Brasio, Monumenta 3: 327 makes this a great grandson of the founder, and thus possibly a son of Dambi Angola as Cavazzi suggests here (and confirmed by da Gaeta, Maravigliosa Conversione, p. 145). Antonio Mendes mentioned that the ruler on the throne when he was there in 1563 was named Angola Quiloange, while Gouvia noted that he had been recently installed, Brasio Monumenta, 2: 511 and . The documents thus suggest the following chronology: Angola Inene died between 1556 and 1560, Dambi Angola ruled between the death of Angola Inene and sometime between 1561 and 1563 when Angola Quiloange began ruling, each being the son of his predecessor. The traditions of Cavazzi and da Gaeta conform to this, and would concur with the relationships if Angola Chiluangi Quisamba were the same person as Angola Inene of the documents.
. See Book 1, pp. 69-73 for further elaboration. In the regard see the letter of Garcia Simoes to the Provincial of Portugal, 20 October 1575, Brasio, Monumenta 3, 134, "The king [of Ndongo] maintains and says openly that he is the lord of the sun and the rain and he orders it to rain or not to rain as it seems fit to him..."
. Contemporary documents are extremely scarce for the last years of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, although Cadornega, who may have had access to documents of this period when he wrote in 1680-1, noted that a king called Angola Quiloangi died during the rule of Andre Ferreira Pereira (1591-93) and was succeeded by his son Angola Ambandi, Historia 1: 49. This king Nginga Angola quilombo quiacasenda = Njinga Ngola Kilombo kia Kasenda, is not found on any other list. Gaeta, Maravigliosa Conversione, p. 145 says that when Chiluangi Chiandambi died he was succeeded by his son Angola Chiluangi, who would be the equivalent to this king, of Cavazzi's. It is significant that in Cavazzi's list this king has no immediate royal antecedent, but traces his ancestry back to Angola Kilwanji kya Samba, which makes his lineage approximately equivalent in legitimacy to that of Kanini of Hari (both of which claimed Ndongo's throne, Hari after 1624, Kanini after Njinga's death in 1663), the senior line descended from Chiluangi Chiasamba's head wife having now expired.
. The southern most province of "metropolitan Angola" just north of Kwanza, Heintze, "Unbekanntes Angola," 750, 768-9. His cruelty to Hari suggests that informants at Mpungu a Ndongo (Hari's capital) might be the source for the tradition as a means of legitimizing their claim. They might also be the source for the tradition in note 37, which also helps their cause.
. Bandi Angola Chiluange = Mbandi Ngola Kilwanji. Perhaps the king mentioned in Cadornega, Historia 1: 49. Da Gaeta lists him as a son of the king Angola Chiluangi cited in note 38, Maravigliosa Conversione, p. 145.
. Nginga = Njinga. That some, but apparently not all Cavazzi's informants chose to place this element "Njinga" before his name shows that Cavazzi collected this information from various informants. That he connects it with the curious 7th king tends to suggest that his informants for that king, and some of that data on this king were the same. In Istorica Descrizione, Book 2, no. 137 a certain "Nginga Bande Angola senior", perhaps this king, is given as father of Angola Hari. See p. 16 and note 58 below.
. Dumbo Aebo or Dumbo Ape = Ndumbo a Ebo or Ndombo a Pe, located according to Istorica Descrizione 2, no.135 and 15 leagues (60 kilometers) from the Portuguese fort of Cambambe. See also Cadornega, Historia 3: 153 which puts it in the region of Heintze, "Ende" pp. 240-1 (with map) locates it on the Kwanza near the center of the old state of Ndongo: it was sacked by Portugese troops in 1626, but can still be located in eighteenth and nineteenth century sources. When Queen Njinga died and her sister succeeded her, a delegation was sent here to collect baobab bark to make a new crown, see below, p. 224.
. This particular account ia peculiar to Cavazzi, none of it being in da Gaeta. It suggests that neither Njinga nor her brother were legitimate, and as such must have been motivated by seventeenth century politics, either at Matamba or Mpungtu a Ndongo, as were, in all probability, some of Cavazzi's other stories, and perhaps two kings: numbers 7 and 8.
. The Portuguese stormed the royal residence in Ndongo in 1617, forcing the Ngola to flee to the eastern border of Ndongo, at a place named Samba a Quinzele; he subsequently died early in 1624, either through suicide or as a result of poison, Heintze, "Ende", pp. 203, 219-24.
. Angola Arij = Ngola Hari, placed on the throne by the Portuguese in 1625, Heintze, "Ende", p. 224. Istorica Descrizione, Book 2, no. 137 makes him the son of Nginga Bandi Angola senior, who is probably king number 8 on this list, while here his is son of "Bandi Angola Ariji the old one"; at the same time, Istorica Descrizione, incorporating revisions from da Gaeta, has him descend from Angola Canini, see note 30 above. Cavazzi has apparently mixed up accounts from several sources, partisans of Kanini, Ngola Hari and Queen Njinga in his account.
. On this incident, see Book 2, pp. 108-111; in revising for this section in Istorica Descrizione, Book 6, nos. 5-15 Cavazzi made extensive use of the account in da Gaiet, Maravigliosa Conversione, pp. 69-83. Antonio Romano, a native of Gaetta, is, of course, this Capuchin missionary (lived 1617-1662) from the province of Naples. He arrived in Angola (with Cavazzi) in 1654 as head of the fourth Capuchin expedition to Angola, and was rapidly made head of the mission to Njinga. He came to Matamba in 1656 and remained there on and off until 1662, when he was made prefect, but died shortly after coming to Luanda to take up his post, Leguzzano, Descricao Historica, 2: 381-2.
. See Book 2, pp. 223-4, but the more detailed version which appears in Istorica Descrizione, Book 6, nos. 122-28 did not get into this manuscript, although Cavazzi's note here indicated that it would.
. Abondo = Kimbundu. Although Cavazzi normally writes her name "Ginga", here he provides a more careful spelling which confirms its spelling in modern Kimbundu would be "Njinga". a similar carefully spelling is given in da Gaeta, Maravigliosa conversione, p. 145-6 (his normal spelling is "Singa").
. Da Gaeta, Maravigliosa conversione, p. 146 gives a nearly identical explanation. Simoes Brando, "Ritos gentilicos" (ed. D'Assumpcao) p. 317 also gives a list of names (including "Nginga") for babies born in particular ways, but he does not link it to the famous queen who had reigned 45 years before he wrots.
. Probably a reference to his section on instability, Book 1, Chapter VI, pp. 64-68. Page 89 of the present draft refers to activities of a xingula and bear no obvious relation to what is written here, again perhaps a reference to an earlier draft.
. These sisters, Kambu and Funji were not "lost" during the reign of Ngola A Mbande, according to Cavazzi or any other source, though Queen Njinga did lose and regain them several times during her reign. See Heintze, "Ende", pp. 218-24 for an interpretation grounded on contemporary documents.
. The idea of a ruler sitting on the backs of one of his or her subjects as an attribute of power is so widespread in central Africa (of Miller, Kings and Kinsmen, p. 139) that this story ought not be taken seriously.
. The words "until the present" suggest that this part of the MS was written originally befor 17 October 1663, the date of Njinga's death, especially in the light of the correct usage, "until her death".
. Njinga left Luanda in 1622 accompanied by the Portuguese captain Bento Rebelo Visasboas, who had most recently served in Angola as (among other things), Escrivao das causas do mar, auditor do campo and ouridor e provedor dos defuntos e ausentes, Heintze, "Ende", p. 211 and note 85.
. Contemporary documents, especially the Fernao de Sousa collection studied by Heintze reveal a different version than this one given by Cavazzi. According to these records, Njinga's embassy was as a result of the visit of a Portuguese mission led by Manuel Dias, a long serving soldier and the local (filho da terra) priest Dionisio de Faria Baretto, after working out some details, Ngola a Mbande then sent a mission which completed the treaty, Heintze, "Ende", p. 210 and notes 79-80.
83. Elsewhere in this section, Cavazzi (p. 28) suggests this priest was of whole or partial African ancestry, as "filho da terra" only indicates Angolan birth, not race or color. He was well regarded by Fernao de Sousa, although Bento Ferras had him imprisioned and deported in 1626, Heintze, "Ende", p. 210, note 79.
. Contemporary documents do not mention the naming incident, although the second mission, with the royal sisters (including Njinga) did take place to greet the new governor, Pedro de Sousa Coelho who arrived on 2 May 1623. The other two didters were baptized in 1622 along with Njinga, Heitze,"Ende", pp. 211, 218. Dionisio de Faria Baretto's departure was precipitated by the breakdown in relations between Ndongo and Portugal, and was not simply his decision, ibid, pp. 219, 221.
. The Portuguese attack on kabasa, their victory over Ngola a Mbande, and his withdrawl, first to Samba a Quinenzele in eastern Ngongo, then to the Kwanza Islands (Kindongo) took place during the rule of Luis Mendes de Vasconceles (26 July 1617-14 October 1621). The Portuguese tried, unsuccessfully, to establish a puppet king named Antonio Correia Samba a Ntumba after this victory, and then, in late 1621 or 1622 initiated the peace talks with Ngola a Mbande. Heintze, "Ende", pp. 203, 208-9, 211.
. He died sometime in January-April 1624. Fernao de Sousa, a contemporary, mentioned only his suicide in his own memoires, but put the story of possible poisoning by Njinga in his reports to Lisbon, perhaps to justify his campaigns against her, Heintze, "Ende", pp. 219-20.
. This alliance between rulers of Ndongo and the Imbangala of Kasa was a recent development at the time, as "Casa Cangola" served in the Portuguese army that sacked Kabasa in 1617, but he was reported in 1619 to have rebelled and gone to Ndongo, Heintze, "Ende", pp.202-203, 222.
. Contemporary sources do not mention this arrangement, but simply stress her siezure of power. On the other hand, they were from Portuguese officials anxious to satisfy Lisbon's desires for respecting the legitmate rulers and to justify their making war on her as an usuper. It is noteworthy in this regard that during much of this time she signed her name as "Senhora" (Lady) and not "Rainha} (Queen), a titile which she only took up in a letter to Bento Banha Cordoso, 3 March 1626 (published in Heintze, "Ende", pp. 268-9), ibid, p. 222.
. While contemporary sources mention her continued alliance with various Imbangala groups and the murder of her nephew, these details can only be found in the later sources from Njinga's testimony (and perhaps that of others in her court) recorded here by Cavazzi, and also in da Gaeta, Maravigliosa Conversione, pp. 203-205; see the discussion in Heintze, "Ende", p.222.
. Njinga was still calling herself a Christian in her letter to Bento Banha Cordoso, 3 March 1626 (Heintze, "Ende", p. 268), while in 1629 it was reported to Fernao de Sousa that the Jaga Kasanje had falled out with her because she wanted to dominate him as she had Kasa, and yet she did not have a "lunga" (an emblem of the Imbangala, see above, Book 1, p. 22 and note 61). Perhaps she became an Imbangala herself in the period shortly after this, Heintze, "Ende", p. 258.
. The Portuguese attacks on the islands of Kindonga began early in 1626, which would make this conversion to Imbangala rites, which I have suggested took place in 1630 or so, out of place, Heintze, "Ende", pp. 227-9.